Mechanical Engineering Dictionary-Tools and Cutters

Important Terms and their Meaning of Mechanical Engineering-Tools and Cutters:

ABOUTSLEDGE – The large hammer used by a blacksmith’s mate, turnabout with the smaller hammer of the blacksmith.

ANGLE CUTTER – Type of milling cutter used for single or double angles. The term angle cutter covers three types of milling cutters, the single or half-angle, the double angle and the equal or combined angle.

BACK STICK – Piece of wood used when spinning sheet metal by hand in a lathe.

BASTERED FILE – File of approximately middle grade in regard to cut or tooth pitch.

BELL CENTER PUNCH – Device used for rapidly locating and marking the centre of the flat end of a cylindrical workpiece, preparatory to heavier centre punching, centre drilling, turning in a lathe etc.

BLANKING AND CUPPING TOOL – Tool used to cut a blank and form a cup from sheet or strip metal at one stroke of the press.

BLOW PIPE – Gas welding torch in which oxygen and acetylene are mixed and ejected from a nozzle.

BOILER TAP – Hand tap specially designed for tapping holes for use with boiler stays.

BOLSTER – It is a block of mild steel with a hollow in it to accommodate the rivet head.

BORING BAR – Bar carrying a cutter or cutters to enable holes to be bored which are larger in diameter than can be conveniently drilled by means of twist drills.

BORING TOOL – Single or double ended tool for machining a drilled or cored hole.

BOX SPANNER – Spanner in the form of a hollow tube, shaped at the end (or ends) to fit a nut.

BOX WRENCH – A type of closed end wrench made in many styles for specific sizes and shapes of bolt heads or nuts.

BREAST DRILL – Has an adjustable breast plate, by means of which a much greater pressure may be applied to the drill. This hand-drill has double ratio drive.

BROACH – A long tool with number of cutting teeth which is pushed or pulled through a hole or across a surface to form the desired shape and size.

CAULKING TOOL – Type of tool used to close the riveted joints on pressure vessels, for instance, a boiler, or compressed air reservoir.

CEMENTED CARBIDE TOOL – Lathe or other cutting tool fitted with a tip made from either tungsten, tantalum or titanium carbide, held in a matrix of cobalt.

CENTER DRILL – A short, stubby, straight shank, two fluted twist drill that is used when center holes are drilled and reamed in the ends of a shaft in separate operations.

CENTER POP – A dot punch or sharply pointed center punch.

CENTER PUNCH – Hand tool employed for marking out points or centers e.g., when marking the center of a shaft preparatory to drilling or center drilling.

CENTER REAMER – A countersink having a 60° included angle for sizing and smoothing center holes in work-pieces to be turned or ground between centers.

CERAMIC TOOLS – A newer cutting tool material made of aluminium oxide or silicon carbide and held together by binders or additives of other materials.

CHAIN CUTTER – Cutter of chain type used in a chain mortise machine for the mortising of wood.

CHASER – Tool for forming or finishing screw threads in a lathe.

CHIP BREAKER – A groove ground into the top of the toolbit of a lathe, shaper or planer to keep the chips short.

CHISELS – These are hand working tools, made from carbon tool steel, usually of octagonal section. The end of the chisel is shaped to the required form and finished by grinding.

COMPARATOR – Instrument for comparing the dimensions of a component with a standard of length.

COMPASS – Instrument used for describing arcs and circles.

COTTER MILL – Also called slotting end mill, cottering or key seating cutter.

COUNTERBORE – When a drilled hole is to be enlarged concentrically for a portion of its length, a counterbore is used. It consists of a series of blades arranged to cut on the ends only, and a smooth pilot slightly smaller than the drilled hole.

CROSS CUT FILE – File which is parallel throughout its length and in section tapers more sharply than a knife file, used extensively for sharpening the teeth of cross cut saws.

CROSS CUT OR CAPE CHISEL – It is forged so that the cutting edge is slightly wider than the body, this is to ensure that the chisel does not bind in the cut when it is used for deep grooves.

CROSS PEEN HAMMER – A hammer with a wedge shaped peening end at right angles to the direction of the handle.

CURLING TOOL – Tool designed and made to curl the edge of a metal article.

DEAD SMOOTH FILE – A file having teeth of very fine cut in other words, with its teeth very closely spaced or pitched.

DIAMOND POINT CHISEL – A type of cold chisel ground with a diamond point.

DIAMOND WHEEL – An abrasive wheel composed of a bonding agent, into which crushed and screened diamond particles of appropriate size are introduced to form the abrasive cutting face.

DIE (drawing) – Tool of angular form through which a shell is pushed, tubes, sections, bar and wire are pulled so as to give the required size and cross-sectional shape.

DIE NUT – Tool, shaped like a square or hexagonal nut, and provided with cutting edges, employed for cutting or sizing external threads.

DIE PLATE – Tool in the form of a flat plate of good quality cast steel having a number of drilled and tapped holes, employed in hand cutting screw threads on rods of about 5 mm in diameter or smaller.

DOT PUNCH – Light type of sharply pointed centre punch used for light centre dotting along a scribed line to make it more easily visible or to ensure a permanent record of its location.

DOUBLE CUT FILE – A file having teeth formed by two intersecting series of parallel chisel cuts.

DREADNOUGHT FILE – A file with coarsely pitched curved teeth or chisel form produced by cutting curved tooth spaces in the blank.

DRESSER – Tool used in sharpening grinding wheels of abrasive material, usually a diamond tool.

DRILL – Tool used for the production of round holes in metal and other solid material.

DRILL POST AND RATCHET – Portable hand operated drilling machine, comprising three parts—the post or pillar, the arm, and the ratchet brace.

EMERY WHEEL – A grinding wheel made from emery or natural abrasive.

END MILL – A milling cutter having a straight or tapered shank for mounting into a holder for driving. The cutting portion has teeth on the end as well as on the circumference.

EXPANSION REAMER – A type of hand or machine reamer in which the diameter may be slightly increased by an expanding screw.

EXY OUT – A tool for removing a broken stud or bolt from a hole. A hole is drilled into or through the portion of the stud remaining in the hole. Then the exy out is screwed into the hole and when the tool is turned counter clockwise, the broken portion is removed from the hole.

FACE MILL – A milling cutter similar to an end mill but of a larger size.

FEELER GAUGE – Leaf gauge, rather like a multibladed pen knife, the various leaves or blades all having different thicknesses.

FILE – Steel tool used for smoothing rough surfaces, and for reducing the thickness of material by abrasion. The teeth may be single cut or double cut.

FILE CARD – Device fashioned like a wire brush, used to clean dirt and chips from the teeth of a file.

FINISHING TOOL – Tool for taking a light finishing cut, a knife edge tool used with a fine feed or a round nose finishing tool with a coarse feed.

FLAT CHISEL – Commonest form of cold chisel having a long single cutting edge.

FLAT DRILL – Type of drill in general use before the introduction of the twist drill, having flat sides and, therefore, no true cutting action, the flat drill is inclined to have a scraping action rather than cutting.

FLAT FILE – General utility file having a rectangular section, parallel in both width and thickness for about two thirds its length and slightly tapered off in both width and thickness towards the point for the rest of its length. They are double cut on their wide working faces, but are single cut on both their narrow edges.

FLAT ENDED DRILL – by means of which a hole previously drilled to the correct depth with a twist drill may be squared out to a flat bottom, the small “pip” is necessary to ensure that the drill runs concentrically.

FLUTED CHUCKING REAMER – A machine reamer which has straight or helical flutes to provide cutting edges over the entire length of the flutes. Intended for removing a small amount of metal and for finishing a hole accurately and smoothly.

FLY CUTTER – A single point tool for use on milling machines.

FOLLOWON TOOL – Multistage press tool incorporating such operations as blanking, piercing, marking and bending and used in either in a hand or single action power press.

FORMING TOOL – A cutting tool used for forming regular or irregular shapes. The cutting tool is ground to the shape desired and reproduces this shape on the workpiece.

FORM MILL – Milling cutter used for a specific form or shape.

FULLER – Tool used by the smith for making riveted joints or shaped work on the anvil, or working under the power hammer.

GATE KNIFE – Moulders tool used for cutting away sand to form the gate passage through which metal must run from the main supply to the mould cavity.

GEAR CUTTERS – Accurately formed cutting tools of hardened steel having shaped teeth that cut the spaces between the teeth of a gear to the precise shape and size required.

GRINDING WHEEL – Abrasive wheels in which the abrasive material is held together by a bonding material. The elements that make up the wheel are (1) abrasive, (2) grain size, (3) bond, (4) grade and (5) structure. There are nine standard shapes and many sizes and grades for grinding practically all kinds of materials.

HACKSAW – Tool employed in cutting bars, rods, tubes etc., of small size, it consists essentially of a frame, a handle and a blade.

HALF ROUND FILE – File which has a section like a segment of a circle (less than a semicircle).

HAMMER (pneumatic) – Hammer held and applied to the work by hand, but actuated by compressed air.

HAMMER (sledge) – Tool with a steel head and a wooden handle, a larger type of hammer which may have the head weighing from, say 2 to 7 kg with the handle varying from, say 60 to 90cm in length.

HAND CHASERS – are made in pairs one for internal work, and the other for external work. These are used only for small threads on brass, or for rounding off the tops and bottoms of threads previously formed by the vee tool in the screw cutting lathe.

HAND FILE – Commonly used file parallel in width from the tang to the tip, but slightly thinned off in thickness for about one third of its length towards the point.

HAND HAMMER – Type of hammer employed by fitters, machinists and so on, the head weighing from 12 to 24 oz.

HAND TAP – A hardened and tempered steel tool for cutting internal threads. It has a thread cut on it, and is fluted to provide cutting edges. A square at the shank end makes it possible to attach a wrench for turning by hand.

HAND TOOL – A general term that applies to wide variety of small tools used by hand instead of being power driven, as layout tools, wrenches and hammers.

HOLLOW MILL – Type of milling cutter in which the work passes through the center of the cutter.

HOB – Fluted rotary cutter used to produce spur, helical, and worm gears, a worm shaped cutting tool having a number of flutes or gashes running across the threads so that a series of cutting edges is formed.

INDENTER – Tool used to form an indentation i.e., a small recess in the surface of an article.

INSERTED TIP TOOL – Lathe tool with an especially hard tip inserted in a certain steel holder.

INSERTED TOOTH CUTTER – Milling cutter with separate teeth fitted into a body or hob.

INTER LOCKING CUTTERS – Milling cutters consisting of two sections. Mating sections are similar to half side cutters or staggered tooth side cutters with uniform or alternate helical teeth so designed that the paths of teeth overlap when in proper assembly.

KEYWAY MILL – Cutter for milling of keyways in shafts, made in standard widths from 1/6 to 3/8 inch and diameters from 1/2 to 1½ inch.

KNIFE FILE – File in transverse section tapers symmetrically from one edge to the other, like a wedge or a knife, used for filing in narrow spaces and cleaning sharp corners.

KNURLING TOOL – Tool to cut a knurl or diamond shaped impression on the surface of a component.

LAP – A tool for finishing internal and external surfaces of the workpiece by charging the lap with a fine abrasive. Always made from metals which are softer than the metal being lapped.

LAPPING STONE – Stone used for lapping operations, especially on tools and cutters of high speed steel and tungsten carbide.

LEAD HAMMER – A soft hammer made of lead for tapping, seating and adjusting work pieces to prevent damaging the finished surface.

LEFT HAND CUTTER – In lathe work, a cutting tool that cuts when fed from left to right or towards the tailstock. For milling cutters, when viewed from the spindle or shank end, the cutter would turn counter-clockwise.

LEFT HAND SCREW – One that screws into the mating part or advances when turned to the left or counter-clockwise.

LOADED WHEEL – A grinding wheel that has become dull or filled up from the abrasive particles of the material being ground.

MACHINE TAPS – Taps designed for continuous rather than intermittent cutting and which have less land, more chip space, spiral or straight flutes, and longer shanks on some types.

METAL BAND SAW – A power driven precision saw having an endless blade which runs over two wheels mounted one above the other and used to cut metal.

METAL SLITTING SAW – A thin milling cutter for slotting or cutting off stock in a milling machine.

MILLING CUTTER – Rotary cutter having teeth and spaces on the circumference and side or end faces of steel discs, used on milling machines.

NAIL PUNCH – Punch used by wood workers to drive the head of a nail a little below a surface.

NECKING TOOL – Tool designed and used to reduce the diameter of a component and thus form a neck.

NEEDLE FILE – Small, light files usually restricted in length to 3 to 4 inch, made with a variety of cross-sectional shapes.

NUMBER SIZE DRILLS – A system of drill sizes for small drills in which the diameters are designated by numbers from No 1 the largest, to No 80 the smallest.

OIL STONE – Stone employed for sharpening edged tools.

PARALLEL ROUND FILE – Single cut file of circular cross-section parallel throughout its length, usually known as a blunt round or gulleting file.

PARALLEL SQUARE FILE – Type of file of square section parallel throughout its length, usually known as a square blunt file.

PIERCING SAW – resembling a wood-work fret saw is used for cutting internal holes, slots and shapes, its lower jaw is adjustable for blades of varying lengths.

PIN PUNCH – Type of punch, sometimes called a drive pin punch, employed in removing dowel pins, cotter pins, rivets and similar light objects used as temporary fastenings, also for punching small holes in sheet metal.

PLAIN MILLING CUTTER – A milling cutter that has cutting teeth on the circumference surface only.

PLANER TOOL – Tool used in a planing machine made of different sizes, shapes and materials.

PNEUMATIC TOOL – Design of hand tool operated by air pressure.

PUNCH (hand) – Tool used for producing a rough hole.

PULLEY TAP – A thread cutting tap having a very long shank for tapping set screw holes in pulleys.

RADIUS CUTTER – A side or end milling cutter which has the edges of the teeth ground to specified radius so that it will reproduce the radius on the workpiece.

RAMMER – Tool used by foundry workers for consolidating sand.

RATCHET DRILL – Short type of drill for use in a ratchet brace.

REAMER – Multiedged cutting tool having cutting edges arranged down the length of the tool, the teeth (and the flutes) being either straight and parallel to the axis or alternatively helical with a lead opposite to the direction of rotation.

RECESSING TOOL – Type of tool employed to cut recesses in bored holes.

RIFFLER – File with a curved working surface specially made for filing concave surfaces, such as the insides of oddly shaped holes in castings.

RIGBY HAMMER – Steam hammer used for a wide range of forging work.

RIGHT CUT TOOL – A single point lathe tool, which when used in a lathe, the cutting edge is on the left side and cuts when fed from right to left.

RIGHT HAND CUTTER – A term used to describe both rotation and helix of milling cutters. A cutter that rotates clockwise when viewed from the spindle end is said to have right hand rotation. A cutter has a right hand helix when the flutes slant downward to the right when viewed from the front or twist clockwise when viewed from the end.

RIVET PUNCH – Tool for piercing holes for rivets, few have a spiral cutting edge.

RIVET SET – Tool used to shape the head of a rivet, and sometimes known as cup tool and snap.

ROLLER, KNURLING – Grooved roller for the purpose of producing a knurled or roughened surface on the outside of the work.

ROSE CHUCKING REAMER – Type of reamer with straight flutes to enlarge deep holes or holes of large diameter, in machined parts.

ROSE REAMER – A machine reamer designed so that all the cutting is done on the bevelled ends of the teeth instead of on the sides, sometimes also called ROSE SHELL REAMER.

ROUGH FILE – Type of file having coarsely cut teeth, approximately 20 teeth per inch.

ROUGHING TOOL – Lathe tool designed to take a heavy cut for preliminary roughing cut.

ROUND FILE – Type of file of circular section throughout its length, made in two forms, taper (or slim) and parallel (blunt) .

ROUND NOSE CHISEL – Hand cutting tool used for incising grooves in bearings and bushes, roughing out filleted corners and so on.

ROUND NOSE TOOL – A single point cutting tool having a round nose and with or without side rake angles. With no side rake it may be used to cut either right or left hand.

SAFE EDGE FILE – File with one edge left uncut and it is very useful when working against a shoulder.

SCRAPER – Tool used to reduce the high spots on a surface which has previously been smoothed as far as possible by machining or filing. Scraping is hand operation.

SAW SHARPENING FILE – Type of file used for sharpening saw teeth, its shape being dependent on the shape of the teeth (mill file, cross cut saw file, taper saw file, double ended taper saw file).

SCREW PLATE – A set consisting of the more commonly used taps and dies, a tap wrench, and a die stock, cased in a wooden box.

SCREW SLOTTING SAWS – A series of thin saws of various widths, generally used in an automatic screw machine but sometimes in a milling machine, to cut the slots in the heads of screws.

SCREW TAP – Tool used in producing a screw thread in a hole i.e., an internal thread.

SCRIBER – Metal tool, shaped something like a thin pencil, having a sharply pointed end for marking lines on metal surfaces so as to locate the positions of holes, angles, machining boundaries.

SCRIBING BLOCK – Tool comprising a heavy base, a rigid vertical spindle and a sleeve device capable of travelling up and down the spindle and holding a scriber, used primarily on surface plates for the purpose of scribing lines parallel to a level surface or to another line.

SECOND CUT FILE – Type of file having a grade of cut between a bastard file and a smooth file.

SET – The bend to one side of the teeth of a saw. Also, any deformation of metal or other material stressed beyond its elastic limit.

SET FILE – Type of file bent or set to a special shape to make possible the filing of some part of a workpiece otherwise inaccessible.

SHANK – The non-cutting end of a tool which fits into the holding device for driving, as the taper shank on a drill.

SHAPING TOOL – Cutting tool used in a shaping machine, and is designed to withstand a certain amount of shock, not only when starting, but also when they are forced across the surface of the metal.

SHEARS (hand) – Scissors like cutting tool used for hand cutting sheet metal to the required shapes.

SHELL END MILL – Large type of end mill ranging from 1¼ to 3 inch diameter. The body of the cutter is slightly less in length than its diameter, and is made with a hole through the centre to fit a standard arbor.

SHELL REAMER – Type of reamer with a central hole which can be mounted on a suitable arbor. The term shell is used to differentiate this type of reamer from the solid reamer.

SINGLE CUT FILE – A file that has single rows of parallel teeth arranged at an angle across the face.

SINGLE POINT CUTTER – Boring cutter with one point only for use in a boring bar.

SIDE AND FACE MILL – Milling cutter with teeth on the sides and circumference.

SIDE FACE TOOL – Knife edged tool for side turning or facing.

SIDE TOOL – Knife tool used for ordinary turning in a lathe.

SLABBING CUTTER – A wide face milling cutter designed for heavy roughing cuts.

SLIDE BEVEL – Angles between adjacent surfaces of an object, which are not 90 degree, are tested with the slide bevel.

SLITTING SAW – Circular saw for use on milling machines to make slitting or cutting through metal, or the cutting of deep narrow slots.

SLOTTING DRILL – Short, straight flute drill made without a point. It is more of a milling cutter than a drill.

SMOOTH FILE – Type of file having a grade of cut between a second cut and a dead smooth. The number of teeth per inch varies considerably for different makes, sizes and shapes, but a smooth file 12" long has about 50 to 60 teeth/inch.

SOFT HAMMER – A hammer, the head of which is made of copper, lead, raw hide or plastic to avoid any damage to the finished surfaces of work-pieces or machine parts.

SOLDERING IRON – Tool used during a soldering operation to heat the solder and the parts to be joined.

SPACING DEVICE (for centre punch) – Simple device which can be fitted to an automatic centre punch to enable light punch marks or dots to be spaced out at regular distances along a scribed line.

SPANNER – Lever tool, also called a wrench, employed for tightening and loosening nuts, bolts, screws etc.

SPANNER WRENCH – A type of wrench having a hook or equipped with pins for tightening or loosening threaded circular collars which have either slots or holes to receive the hook or pins on the wrench.

SPIRAL MILL – Milling cutter with the cutting teeth in the form of a spiral or helix round its circumference.

SPOT FACING TOOL – is similar to the counter-bore and is used primarily for producing a shallow, annular, finished surface to mate with a locking washer or the head of a bolt or nut.

SQUARE – The name of tools of various designs and types used for laying out, inspecting, and testing the squareness of work-pieces. Also, lines or surfaces which meet at right angles.

SQUARE FILE – Type of file with square section throughout its length, made in two forms taper (or slim) and parallel (or blunt).

SQUARE NOSE TOOL – A single point end cutting tool usually ground with the end cutting edge at approximately 90° to the axis of the point. Used for chamfering or for rough cuts on flat surfaces where sharp corners are necessary. Also, used for finishing cuts on cast iron.

STAGGER TOOTH CUTTERS – Side milling cutters in which the teeth having alternating helix and the drag ends are eliminated to provide more chip clearance.

STOCK AND DIE – Tool used for cutting external threads on cylindrical bars etc. The stock is the name given to the portion of the tool (hand holder) into which the dies are placed and which enables the dies to be rotated without undue effort. The assembled unit is called die and stock.

STRADDLE MILL – Term used when two or more milling cutters are fitted on the arbor with spacing collars between them.

STRAIGHT REAMER – is a cutting tool used to finish or semi finish the surface of a cylindrical hole.

STRAIGHT SHANK DRILL – Twist drill having a shank that is straight rather than tapered and held in a self centering drill chuck for driving.

SURFACE PLATE – Metal plate with an optically flat surface which is used as a plane of reference.

SWAGE BLOCK – Tool, made either in cast iron or steel and weighing roughly 75 kgs, used for shaping and finishing of forgings of a variety of cross sections.

SWAN NECK TOOL – Cranked tool for finishing slender work in a lathe.

SWISS FILE – Class of fine file used on light accurate work.

TANG – Two opposite flats milled at the end of taper shanks which enter a slot in the spindle to prevent slipping and provide a means of removing the shank from the spindle. Also the name of the part of a file that fits into the handle.

TAP – A hardened and tempered steel tool for cutting internal threads which has flutes lengthwise to provide cutting edges for the threads and a square at the end of the shank for turning the tap with a wrench.

TAP DRILL – A twist drill, the size of which will produce a hole that can be tapped with a specified tap to give a thread of required depth or percentage of full depth.

TAP EXTRACTOR – A tool or device for removing broken taps from holes. Prongs extend down into the flutes of the broken portion. By attaching a wrench to the extractor, the broken part in the hole may be loosened and backed out.

TAP GROOVING CUTTER – Relieved milling cutter having a contour specially designed for cutting the grooves or flutes in a tap.

TAPER PIN REAMER – Reamer employed to open out a drilled a hole so that a standard taper pin can be fitted.

TAPER TAP – is used to machine an internal taper thread such as a pipe thread. It is chamfered at its small end for a distance equal to 4 or 5 times the distance between threads.

TAP WRENCH – Tool which grips the square ended shank of a tap and enables it to be worked through a hole in hand tapping.

TEE SLOT MILL – Milling cutter used for cutting the cross groove of a Tee slot.

Tool – A device or implement, especially one held in the hand, used to carry out a particular function.

TOOL BIT – Small section of high speed steel, suitably ground, and held in a tool holder.

TOOL MAKERS FILE – File which in width and thickness is smaller than an ordinary file generally obtainable in sizes from 2 to 12 inch in length.

TOOL MAKERS FLAT – Extremely accurate surface plate used by tool makers.

TRAMMEL – Instrument mainly used for marking out arcs of circles too large in diameter to permit the use of dividers.

TREPANNING TOOL – A tool holding device designed to hold a cutting tool bit. This device is rotated in a drilling machine to cut out large circles or holes from solid metal by cutting a narrow groove around the metal.

TRIANGULAR FILE – File having a section shaped like an equilateral triangle, usually known as a three square file.

TRIMMING DIE – Tool used to remove the surplus material from the edge of an article.

TROWEL – Tool most frequently used by moulders and core makers in the execution of their work.

TRY SQUARE – Adjacent surfaces of an object, whether they are at right angles or not is tested with the trisquare.

T SLOT CUTTER – A one piece, T shaped cutter which has a narrow neck connecting the cutter to the shank, the diameter and width of the cutter being standard for each number of T slot to suit bolts of various sizes.

TURNING TOOL – Tool of hardened material, suitably ground, for the purpose of forming cylindrical or tapered work in a lathe.

TWIST DRILL – Drill with spiral flutes around its circumference. These flutes leading from the cutting faces, called lips, provide an exit for the metal that is removed when the hole is being drilled.

TWO LIP END MILL – A type of end milling cutter having two cutting edges or lips in which the flutes may be straight or helical. Used for the fast removal of metal when slots or keyways are to be cut on the milling machine.

UNIVERSAL SQUARE – Tool used to find the centre of a circle without the use of other marking out instruments.

VEE BLOCK AND CLAMP – are used for holding circular bars for centering, drilling etc.

VIXEN FILE – A flat file with curved teeth which is largely used for filing soft metals.

WARDING FILE – Small file, usually about four to six inches long, having a rectangular section, used by locksmiths when filing keys to fit the wards of a lock or for filing the actual wards.

WASHER CUTTER – Tool designed to cut washers, or round discs, with or without holes in their centers, from sheet metal.

WHEEL (grinding) – Power driven wheel consisting of abrasive particles, held together by artificial or natural, mineral, metal or organic bonds.

WHEEL DRESSER – A tool or device used for dressing the face of grinding wheels.

WIRECUTTER – Tool used to cut wire and small diameter rod.

WOODRUFF KEYWAY MILL – Milling cutter for cutting standard woodruff keyways.

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