Vitamins and Minerals - ObjectiveBooks

Vitamins and Minerals

Some of Vitamins & Minerals, their effects on human body and their food sources:

Vitamin, Minerals
Effects on human body
Sources of Food
Vitamin A
Vitamin A prevents eye problems, promotes a healthy immune system, is essential for the growth and development of cells and keeps skin healthy.
Milk, eggs, liver, fortified cereals, darkly coloured orange or green vegetables (carrots, sweet potatoes and pumpkin), orange fruits such as cantaloupe. Apricots, peaches, papayas and mangoes.
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine helps the body convert carbohydrates into energy and is necessary for the heart, muscles and nervous system to function properly.
Fortified breads, cereals and pasta, meat and fish, dried beans, soy foods and peas, whole grains like wheat germ.
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin is essential for turning carbohydrates into energy and producing red blood cells. It is also important for vision.
Some of the best sources of riboflavin are meat, eggs, legumes (like peas and lentils), nuts, dairy products, green lead vegetables, broccoli, asparagus and fortified cereals.
Vitamin B-3 (Niacin)
Niacin helps the body turn food into energy. It helps to maintain healthy skin and it is important for nerve function.
Red meat, poultry fish, fortified hot and cold cereals and peanuts.
Vitamin B-6
Vitamin B6 is important for normal brain and nerve function. It also helps the body break down proteins and make red blood cells.
Potatoes, bananas, eans, seeds, nuts, red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, spinach and fortified cereals.
Vitamin B-9 (Folic Acid)
Folic acid helps the body make red blood cells. It also needed to make DNA.
Dried beans and other legumes, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, oranges and other citrus fruits, Poultry foods, fortified or enriched bread, noodles and cereals.
Vitamin B-12
Vitamin B12 helps to make red blood cells and is important for nerve cell function.
Found in Fish, red meat, poultry, milk, cheese and eggs. It is also added to some breakfast cereals.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is needed to form collagen, tissue that holds cells together. It is essential for healthy bones, teeth, gums and blood vessels. It helps the body to absorb iron and calcium and contribute to brain function.
Vitamin C is found in red berries, kiwi, red and green capsicums, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach and juices made from guava, grapefruit and oranges.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D strengthens bones because it helps the body absorb bone-building calcium.
This vitamin is unique- our body manufactures it when we get sunlight on our skin. Vitamin D is also found in egg yolks, fish and fortified food like milk.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant and helps protect cells from damage. It is also important for the health of red blood cells.
Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils, nuts and green leafy vegetables. Avocados, wheat germ and whole grains.
Vitamin K-1
Deficiency of K1 can result in coagulopathy, a bleeding disorder. Symptoms of K1 deficiency include anaemia, bruising, and bleeding of the gums or nose, liver damage

Vitamin K1 is found chiefly in leafy green vegetables such as dandelion, greens spinach, Swiss, lettuce and brassica cabbage, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, butter or oils; some fruits such as avocado, kiwi and grapes.
Vitamin K-2
Coronary heart disease is strongly associated with lower levels of K2.
Food sources of vitamin K2 include fermented or aged cheeses, eggs, meats such as chicken and beef and their fat, livers, and organs, and in fermented vegetables, especially natto, as well as sauerkraut and Kofi.
Vital for building strong bones and teeth.
The time to build strong bones is during childhood and teen years, to fight against bone loss later in life. Weak bones are susceptible to osteoporosis, causing bones to break easily.
Milk and other dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, broccoli and dark green leafy vegetables, soy foods and food fortified with calcium.
Iron helps red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia include weakness and fatigue, lightheadness and shortness of breath.
Iron rich foods include red meat, pork, fish and shellfish, poultry, lentils, beans and soy foods, green leafy vegetables and raisins. Some flours, cereals, and grain products are also fortified with iron.
Magnesium helps muscles and nerves function, steadies the heart rhythm, and keeps bones strong. It also helps the body create energy and make proteins.
Whole grains and whole grain breads, nuts and seeds, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, beans, avocados, bananas, kiwi, broccoli, prawns and chocolate.
Phosphorous helps form healthy bones and teeth. It also helps the body make energy. it is part of every cell membrane, and every cell in the body needs phosphorous to function normally.
Phosphorous is found in most foods, but best sources are dairy foods, meat and fish.
Potassium helps with muscle and nervous system function. It also helps the body maintain the balance of water in the blood and body tissues.
Potassium is found in broccoli, potatoes (with skins), green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, bananas, dried fruits and legumes such as peas and lima beans.
Zinc is important for normal growth, strong immunity and wound healing.
Red meat, poultry food, oysters and other seafood, nuts, dried beans, soy foods, milk and other dairy products, whole grains and fortified breakfast cereals.
Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for growth and maintenance. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. This also includes body organs, hair and skin. Proteins are also used in membranes, such as glycol proteins.
Meat, products from milk, eggs and fish are sources of complete protein. Cereals and whole grains, nuts and seeds, fruits.

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